CRE

This is the ability of the heart and lungs to provide the working muscles with oxygenated blood for a prolonged period of time.




How to test your CRE - The Bleep Test 

  • Equipment required: Flat, non-slip surface, marking cones, 20m measuring tapebeep test audio, music player, recording sheets.
  • Procedure: This test involves continuous running between two lines 20m apart in time to recorded beeps. For this reason the test is also often called the 'beep' or 'bleep' test. The participants stand behind one of the lines facing the second line, and begin running when instructed by the recording. The speed at the start is quite slow. The subject continues running between the two lines, turning when signaled by the recorded beeps. After about one minute, a sound indicates an increase in speed, and the beeps will be closer together. This continues each minute (level). If the line is reached before the beep sounds, the subject must wait until the beep sounds before continuing. If the line is not reached before the beep sounds, the subject is given a warning and must continue to run to the line, then turn and try to catch up with the pace within two more ‘beeps’. The test is stopped if the subject fails to reach the line (within 2 meters) for two consecutive ends after a warning.


WHY DO WE USE THE BLEEP TEST??

It’s a standardised test – this mean that it follows the same protocol every time meaning that the test is reliable and valid.

It’s a permeant record- this means that you can keep it and use it’s as a comparison at a later date.

It can be used as a comparison – to a previous score, class results, national averages- this allows you to find out your current level of fitness.

Find out your level of fitness- this allows you to develop a training program to improve on your weakness. 

The Cooper Run

The Cooper 12 minute run is a popular maximal running test of aerobic fitness, in which participants try and cover as much distance as they can in 12 minutes. 

  • purpose: to test aerobic fitness (the ability of the body to use oxygen to power it while running)
  • equipment required: flat oval or running track, marker cones, recording sheets, stop watch.
  • procedure: Place markers at set intervals around the track to aid in measuring the completed distance. Participants run for 12 minutes, and the total distance covered is recorded. Walking is allowed, though the participants must be encouraged to push themselves as hard as they can to maximize the distance covered.
  • reliability: the reliability of this test would depend on practice, pacing strategies and motivation level. There should be good reliability if these issues are addressed.

WHY DO WE USE THE COOPER TEST?

It’s a standardised test – this mean that it follows the same protocol every time meaning that the test is reliable and valid.

It’s a permeant record- this means that you can keep it and use it’s as a comparison at a later date.

It can be used as a comparison – to a previous score, class results, national averages- this allows you to find out your current level of fitness.

Find out your level of fitness- this allows you to develop a training program to improve on your weakness.

Approaches to Develop Performance 


Continuous Training -This involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio-vascular fitness (aerobic energy system). Sessions need to keep the heart rate within the training zone for a minimum of 20-30 minutes, 3 times per week.


Interval Training -This involves alternating between periods of hard exercise and rest. For example, working for a set time/distance and then resting for a set time/distance. Interval training can be made harder by increasing the intensity or period of work, or by decreasing the rest period. It can improve speed, muscular endurance or power with a large work to ratio (1:4), or it can improve CRE with a shorter work to rest ratio (1:1) but over a longer period of time.


Fartlek Training - This 'speed play' training involves varying your speed over which you run. (Sprinting, jogging, walking). It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness. This training should replicate the pace of running required in a particular activity. There could also be a change in terrain to increase/decrease intensity (flat/incline/decline).


Conditioning Drills- This is when you train within the activity. This approach will not only improve a specific fitness area, but will improve skill level in a game-like situation. It also helps to keep skill level high, whilst coping with fatigue. This method also prevents boredom and performers will tend to work harder for longer.


Advantages and Disadvantages to these Approaches 


Continuous Training 

-You don't need any specialized equipment- this mean that it is easy to set up and perform. Allowing you more time to train. 

- It is easy to overload, to increase the Frequency, Intensity and Time running. 


- It is boring to perform and therefore your session may suffer due to lack of motivation and effort.  


 

Interval Training 

- It is easy to set up and carry out

- Short breaks allows you to recover and perform at a higher standard. 

- Easy to overload 


- Still not game like and can become boring      

- Interval training needs to be well-planned to match the performers level of fitness. 


FARTLEK TRAINING

Fartek training is more game like as it replicated the speeds that you would use in sport.  walk, jog and sprint.

  - Fartlek training is more interesting than continuous or interval and there fore performers are more motivated during their training. 

- Easy to overload by changing the amount of walking, jogging and sprinting


Conditioning Drills 

- Conditioning drills are much more game 

-  More interesting to perform as you are incorporating skills from the game.

- Takes longer to set up


Principles of Training- Physical Fitness

  • Specificity - training must be matched to the needs and demands of the activity. It must also be specific to the individual in terms of initial fitness levels and their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Progression - start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise and keep overloading. It is important not to progress to quickly as you may risk injury or over train.
  • Overload - fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do (overloading). You must work harder to allow your body to adapt and improve. Overload is possible by varying the frequency, intensity or time of training.
  • Reversibility - any adaptation that takes place as a result of training will be reversed when you stop training. If you take a break or don't train often enough you will lose fitness.
  • Rest (recovery) – It is important to have rest in your programme to allow your body to recover. This could include rest between sets or complete rest days.
  • Tedium - Using a variety of training methods (or exercises) relieves tedium and avoids boredom in training.

Methods of Monitoring Performance 

Training Diary 

writing down thoughts and feelings from your training session can allow you to adapt your sessions. 

writing phrases like "I didn't feel very tired, I wasn't out off breath" shows that your training session was too easy and that next time you should make it more difficult by looking at the principles of effective training. 

Heart Rate 

Monitoring your heart rate during your training sessions will allow you to train at the correct intensity.  Meaning that your progress will not plateau ( level out)

 

Re-testing 

Re-testing periodically during your training program will allow you to see if any improvements are being made. For a fitness programme re- testing should occur after 6 weeks as no measurable improvement can be seen before this point. For a skills programme retesting should take place after 4 weeks of training.