PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING 

What are they ?

  • S- SPECIFICITY
  • P- PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD
  • O- OVERLOAD- FREQUENCY/INTENSITY/ TIME (DURATION) 
  • R- REST 
  • R- REVERSIBILITY 
  • T- TEDIUM 

Specificity

  • Description - Your training has to be specific to your performance needs for your chosen activity and must be relevant to your own levels of fitness and ability.
  • Why it is important? – In a sport like hockey good levels of CRE are extremely important to maintain a high level of performance. Therefore, training must reflect the demands of the activity. Also, the training must reflect your level of fitness and playing position e.g. a goalkeeper might perform agility based training drills. Skills and movement patters can also be improved through training.
  • Justification - Working on an aspect of fitness not essential to your activity or role would be counterproductive. Training specifically within the activity means there is no delay between training and implementing improvements – results are immediate.

Progressive Overload

  • Description - When you exercise at increasingly greater levels by adding to the demands of your fitness programme.
  • Why is it important? - The body adapts to stress to become more efficient. It is required to maintain improvements and to sustain motivation.
  • Justification - If stress is not applied to the body as it adapts to the work load then the fitness improvements will plateau. Also, boredom and lack of focus can result in reversibility or injury.


Frequency

  • Description - The number of training sessions per week. Usually 3 times per week (Mon, Wed, Fri).
  • Why is it important? – Having rest days allows the body to recover and your muscles adapt to the workload.
  • Justification - Over training results in injury, fatigue and lack of motivation which is counter productive. Also, training fewer times would take longer to bring about any training improvements as the body would not be under any stress.


Intensity

  • Description - You must train hard enough so that you will OVERLOAD your body. To improve CRE you must be working between 70-80% of max heart rate.
  • Why is it important? - 70-80% max heart rate ensures you are developing CRE. You do this through having a work to rest ratio of 1:1 e.g. 40 seconds work, 40 seconds rest.
  • Justification - To work without training zones would result in training being pointless. Your skills and fitness are performed at high intensity forcing you to make quick decisions.


Duration

  • Description - The length of time that a performer trains for: 6 weeks, 20 minute session.
  • Why is it important? – 6 weeks is an adequate time scale to bring about improvements. 20 minutes recommended time to ensure you are improving CRE.
  • Justification - Fewer weeks training would result in less progress and it would take longer to improve Cardio Respiratory Endurance

Examples of Progressive Overload (8 week programme)  

  • Week 2 – Introduce an additional station into training (Duration)
  • Week 4 – Introduce another session from 3 to 4 (Frequency)
  • Week 6 – Work at 75% of max heart rate by switching to continuous training. (Intensity)

Rest

  • It is important to have rest in your programme to allow your body to recover. This could include rest between sets or complete rest days.

Reversibility

  • Unfortunately, most of the adaptations which result from training are reversible. This simply means that unless you keep training, any fitness gained will be lost. 
  • fitness will be lost if the training load is reduced  ( meaning that overload is not archived) or if a performer stops training, for example if they are injured .
  • endurance can be lost in a 3rd of the time it took to achieve ! strength declines more slowly , but lack of exercise will cause muscles to wither. 

Tedium

  • Using a variety of training methods (or exercises) relieves tedium and avoids boredom in training